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John Altgeld Susan B. Anthony William J. Bryan Andrew Carnegie Grover Cleveland
Eugene V. Debs Mark Hanna William R. Hearst Mary Lease William McKinley
J. P. Morgan John M. Palmer Joseph Pulitzer Elizabeth Cady Stanton Henry Teller
Benjamin Tillman Booker T. Washington Tom Watson William Allen White

William McKinley

William McKinley

William McKinley (1843-1901), former Congressman and Governor of Ohio, won the 1896 election and became the 23rd U.S. President. As had earlier Midwestern Republican candidates, such as James Garfield and Rutherford B. Hayes, McKinley ran a front-porch campaign from his home in Canton, Ohio, greeting thousands of guests who arrived by rail. Unlike Bryan, he did not go out on the stump, but from his front steps he spoke almost daily--often several times a day--to visitors and the press. Through telegraph and telephone, including new long distance telephone services, McKinley was in close touch daily with his campaign manager, Marcus Hanna, and with Republican headquarters in New York.

The text below is from Great Leaders and National Issues of 1896, published during the campaign. Such biographies were popular, both to introduce candidates to the voters (though socialist and other supposedly "minor" candidates were often ignored) and to offer a model of manly achievement for America's youth. On all sides, such laudatory pieces appeared in newspapers, sometimes side-by-side with bitter editorial attacks and exaggerated caricatures directed against the same men.

McKinley's presidency (1896-1901) witnessed the Spanish-American War, and a long guerrilla conflict over the United States' resulting occupation of the Philippines. McKinley was re-elected in 1900, again running against William Jennings Bryan, who emphasized anti-imperialist themes. In September, 1901, while touring the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, McKinley was assassinated by Leon Czolgosx, a young unemployed laborer and anarchist. For many Americans, in particular, this shocking news was a reminder of the deaths of two other Republican presidents, Abraham Lincoln and James Garfield. The three men's assassins had widely varied motivations, but many observers linked the fates of "three martyrs to the nation," and McKinley's assassination intensfied fears of political and labor violence.

Life and Public Services of William McKinley

by Hon. John Sherman

William McKinley was born at Niles, O., January 29th, 1843, and is therefore just past 53 years of age. He is now in the prime of vigorous manhood, and his powers of endurance are not excelled by any American of his age. The best evidence of this is the many campaigns which he has made during his public life in behalf of the Republican party....

His education, for reasons that could not be surmounted, was limited to the public schools of Ohio and to a brief academic course in Allegheny College. He taught school in the country and accumulated the small means necessary to defray the expenses of that sort of education. This is the kind of schooling that has produced many of the most eminent Americans in public and private life.

His War Services.

McKinley entered the Union Army in June, 1861, enlisting in the Twenty-third Ohio Infantry when a little more than 17 years of age. This was a noted regiment. Among its earlier field officers may be mentioned General W. S. Rosecrans, General Scammon, General Stanley Matthews, General Rutherford B. Hayes, General Comley and many other conspicuous men.

He served during the entire war, rising from the position of a private to the rank of major. He was a soldier on the front line, served in battles, marches, bivouacs and campaigns, and received the official commendation of his superior officers on very many occasions.

He returned to Ohio with a record of which any young man might well be proud and to which the old soldiers of the country will point with great enthusiasm should he be honored by an election to the Presidency. There are in the United States at this time more than a million soldiers of the late war who served on the Union side still living and voting....

Returning from the war, he found it necessary to choose his employment for life, and without further schooling he entered earnestly upon the study of law in the office of Judge Poland, and was a careful, faithful, industrious and competent student. He entered the Albany Law School and graduated from that institution with high honors. He then began the practice of law in Canton with the same enthusiasm and devotion to duty which he had always manifested.... He was elected Prosecuting Attorney of his county and distinguished himself by his learning, fidelity, and efficiency in the discharge of his duties to the public and his clients.

The McKinley Home in Canton, Ohio

The McKinley Home in Canton, Ohio

Elected to Congress

He was elected a member of the Forty-fifth Congress, and served in that Congress and the Forty-sixth, Forty-seventh, Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth, and was certified as elected to the Fiftieth, but was excluded by a Democratic majority in a contest, but was returned to the Fifty-first, making his Congressional career nearly fourteen years. As a member of Congress he was attentive, industrious and untiring, working his way gradually until he reached the post of leader of the Republican majority of the Fifty-first Congress.

... He was a candidate for Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Fifty-first Congress. Mr. Reed, the successful candidate, appointed him as chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, and he entered upon the duties incident to that position with energy and intelligence.... The Republican party had come into power by the election of Mr. Harrison, with the understanding and pledge that tariff revision should be accomplished at once.... In 1890 it was decided to present a complete revision of the tariff, and to this work McKinley devoted himself with untiring industry.

... It is fair to say that McKinley mastered the whole subject in Congress in detail. He has made the subject of protective tariff a life study. Born and reared within the sound of the rolling-mill and beneath the smoke and flame of furnaces ... he has grown up from childhood a student of economic questions involved in American legislation, and so he brought to this task in the Fifty-first Congress remarkable knowledge of details and thorough equipment for the great work devolved upon him....

—William McKinley from Great Leaders and Issues of 1896

The Campaign of 1892

It was the misfortune of the McKinley Act that it took effect at the opening of a presidential contest, and when "labor troubles" excited the public mind. The election of 1892 fell with demoralizing and almost crushing weight upon the Republican party of the country. The law of 1890 was everywhere, by Republicans and Democrats, denominated the McKinley Law.... At that time Major McKinley not only did not seek to evade the responsibility of his position, but frankly and openly admitted it, and he counseled courage and fortitude, and gave assurance of his strong faith in the ultimate triumph of the Republican party upon the very principles which then seemed to be repudiated by the people....

His Work as Governor

The office of Governor of Ohio was to McKinley a new field of action. It was the first executive office he had ever held.... He was Governor during a period involving excitement and intense commotion in Ohio, the strikes among the coal miners, the organizing of bands of tramps, and the passage across the State of great bodies of turbulent people. All these things tended to prcipitate commotion and disorder. His administration as Governor was without reproach or just criticism.... When necessary, he called out the troops and crushed disorder with an iron hand, but before doing so he resorted to every proper expedient to maintain order and the law....

McKinley in His Study

The great depression of 1894-95 brought a condition of suffering to many of the leading industries of the State. Charity was appealed to by the Governor, and aid rendered promptly and efficiently. In January, 1896, he retired from the office of Governor at the end of his second term....

In his domestic life Governor McKinley is a model American citizen. It is not the purpose of the writer of this sketch to use fulsome language or to comment upon his private life, beyond the mere statement that he is and has been an affectionate son of honored parents still living, a devoted husband and a true friend. In his family and social life, and his personal habits, he commends himself to the friends of order, temperance and good morals. In private he is exemplary, in public life a patriotic Republican.

—From Great Leaders and National Issues of 1896

Mrs. McKinley at Home. Study of the Great Republican Leader's Wife.


Mrs. McKinley is not adapted to days of handshaking nor to bows from car platforms. She is not only an invalid, but a woman of strongly domestic preferences. . . . In her youth, Ida Saxton was the belle of Canton, O., and the mature graces of Ida McKinley amply bear out this earlier reputation. . . .

In a quiet and unobtrusive philanthropy Mrs. McKinley takes keen pleasure. Her comprehensive friendliness includes many of the sick and suffering, and there are hospitals, asylums, families, and individuals for whom she labors constantly. She is not a scientific philanthropist, and her charitable impulses are probably never checked by the modern fear of "pauperizing" their objects. But she likes to give where she knows the gift is needed and will be welcome.

While Mrs. McKinley is always contented and cheerful, at present she is radiant, though calm. She is more than ever interested in Mr. McKinley's speeches and Mr. Hanna's maneuvers, and if her husband is a little too busy at present to avail himself of his usual privilege of helping her select her bonnets, she feels that there are ample compensations.

—Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 13 September 1896

© 2010 Rebecca Edwards, author of New Spirits: Americans in the Gilded Age, 1865-1905 by Rebecca Edwards, Oxford University Press

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Major events of the campaign,
in cartoon and story. (Click date)

  • Feb 27: People’s Advocate: Reading Tillman's Speech
  • Mar 19: People’s Advocate: Pitchfork
  • Apr 4: The Ram’s Horn: Rescued
  • Apr 15: Sound Money: History Repeats Itself
  • Apr 25: The Ram’s Horn: The Stranger at Our Gate
  • May 28: Prohibitionist’s convention, Pittsburgh, PA
  • June 16: Republican convention, St. Louis, MO
  • June 21: Denver New Road: Cleveland's Romance
  • June 28: L.A. Times: Bucking a Wall
  • July 4: Socialist convention, New York, NY
  • July 11: Democratic convention, Chicago, Illinois
  • July 9: Rocky Mountain News: A Soliloquy
  • July 11: Harper’s Weekly: Gold Bugs
  • July 12: L.A. Times: The Old Lady and Her New Wheel
  • July 16: People’s Advocate: McKinley's Evil Sprit
  • July 18: Harper’s Weekly: Altgeld and Bryan
  • July 22: Silver convention, St. Louis, MO
  • July 25: People’s Party convention, St. Louis, MO
  • July 22: Rocky Mountain News: Wall Street's Private Studio
  • July 25: Harper’s Weekly: Farmer McKinley
  • July 25: Judge: The Silver Candle
  • July 27: Chicago Record: Bryan's Tightrope
  • Aug 5: Rocky Mountain News: The Plain English of It
  • Aug 6: Sound Money: Spain and Rothschilds
  • Aug 8: McKinley accepts Republican nomination
  • Aug 9: Denver New Road: Bryan's Romance
  • Aug 12: Bryan accepts Democratic nomination
  • Aug 13: American Non-Conformist: Farmer Hanna
  • Aug 15: Rocky Mountain News: Bryan the Lion
  • Aug 16: L.A. Times: Aesop's Fox
  • Aug 18: Rocky Mountain News: Hanna the Wizard
  • Aug 20: Sound Money: The Cross of Gold
  • Aug 20: L.A. Times: Popocratic Witches
  • Aug 22: The Ram’s Horn: A Double Burden
  • Aug 29: Harper’s Weekly: McKinley the Veteran
  • Aug 29: Labor Advocate: Look at This
  • Aug 30: St. Louis Globe Democrat: Dime Museum
  • Sept 2: National (Gold) Democratic convention, Indianapolis, IN
  • Sept to Nov 1: McKinley front-porch campaign, Canton, OH
  • Sept 3: New York Journal: Li Hung Chang
  • Sept 5: Harper’s Weekly: The Crown of Thorns
  • Sept 5: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Just the Bare Facts
  • Sept 6: L.A. Times: Comrades in Arms
  • Sept 6: St. Paul Pioneer Press: A Bryan Dollar
  • Sept 8: Early election day in Arkansas and Vermont
  • Sept 9: Rocky Mountain News: John Bull
  • Sept 10: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Arkansas and Vermont
  • Sept 11 to Nov 1: Bryan travels 13,000 miles by train, stump-speaking around the nation.
  • Sept 11: St. Paul Pioneer Press: The Divorcee
  • Sept 11: St. Louis Globe Democrat: Uncle Sam Diagnoses
  • Sept 12: Labor Advocate: Their Argument Misses Fire
  • Sept 12: The Ram’s Horn: Building Up His Business
  • Sept 12: Harper’s Weekly: Populist Supreme Court
  • Sept 12: New York Journal: Hanna's Funds
  • Sept 13: Boston Globe: The Silver Dog
  • Sept 13: L.A. Times: Uncle Sam's Circus
  • Sept 14: L.A. Times: Populist Pandora
  • Sept 14: Rocky Mountain News: Playing Upon a Single String
  • Sept 17: Rocky Mountain News: Chinese Immigration
  • Sept 18: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Against Turkey
  • Sept 18: Rocky Mountain News: A Horrible Suspicion
  • Sept 19: Judge: Bryan's Cross
  • Sept 19: Labor Advocate: How They Love The Farmers
  • Sept 19: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Election-Year Friend
  • Sept 20: Boston Globe: Writ of Replevin'
  • Sept 20: L.A. Times: Populist Delilah
  • Sept 20: L’Abeille de Nouvelle Orleans: The Sultan Laughs
  • Sept 20: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: John Bull's Theft
  • Sept 21: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: The Robber And His Victim
  • Sept 24: L.A. Times: Resurrecting Secession
  • Sept 24: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Treachery
  • Sept 25: Daily Inter-Ocean: Democratic Jonah
  • Sept 26: Harper’s Weekly: Silver Bullfight
  • Sept 26: L.A. Times: For Sale
  • Sept 26: National Reflector: Rings On The Hog
  • Sept 26: Seattle Post-Intelligencer: Bicyclist Bryan
  • Sept 29: L.A. Times: Poor Circulation
  • Oct 1: Pioneer Press: Silver Trust Hog
  • Oct 3: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Workingman's Friend
  • Oct 4: Raleigh New and Observer: Hanna and Dixon
  • Oct 6: Election Day in the state of Florida (not all states voted on the first Tuesday in Nov).
  • Oct 6: Chicago Times: X-Ray of Bryan's Brain
  • Oct 6: Pioneer Press: Silver Conversation
  • Oct 6: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Florida's Lifeline
  • Oct 8: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Democratic Florida
  • Oct 8: New York Journal: Confident Hanna
  • Oct 10: Harper’s Weekly: Three Witches
  • Oct 10: The Coming Nation: The Worker's Treadmill
  • Oct 11: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Resurrection
  • Oct 13: New York Journal: Hanna and Workers
  • Oct 13: St. Louis Globe Democrat: Bryan as Jack Cade
  • Oct 13: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: The Gold Balloon
  • Oct 15: Coxey's Sound Money: Uncle Sam Enslaved
  • Oct 15: Rocky Mountain News: Elected McKinley
  • Oct 16: Boston Globe: Bryan the Salesman
  • Oct 17: Coming Nation: Labor Exploitation
  • Oct 20: L.A. Times: Burning Cross of Gold
  • Oct 21: The Coming Nation: Socialism
  • Oct 22: Sound Money: The Old Party Scale
  • Oct 22: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Hanna's Crown of Thorns
  • Oct 24: Harper’s Weekly: Altgeld and Guiteau
  • Oct 25: Daily Inter-Ocean: Bryan's Balloon
  • Oct 25: Omaha World Herald: Getting Women to Register
  • Oct 27: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Hanna, Trusts, and Morgan
  • Oct 28: Puck: A New Civil War
  • Oct 30: St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Hanna in Lehigh Valley
  • Oct 31: Republicans announce “Flag Day,” then argue with Democrats and Populists over meaning of the flag
  • Oct 31: Harper’s Weekly: Democratic Wind-Up Toys
  • Oct 31: New York Journal: Buncombe Brigade
  • Oct 31: The Ram’s Horn: Ignorance, Stupidity, and Fraud
  • Nov 2: McKinley wins presidential election
  • Nov 2: L.A. Times: Clown Bryan
  • Nov 4: L’Abeille de Nouvelle Orleans: Knock-Out Punch
  • Nov 4: St. Paul Pioneer Press: Elephant on the Silver Pillow
  • Nov 5: Sound Money: Prediction for 1900
  • Nov 14: Judge: Republican Tam O'Shanter
  • Nov 14: Coming Nation: Our Farmers Situation
  • Dec: Overland Monthly: Uncle Sam Looks Abroad
New Spirits
New Spirits
Perceptions and Realities: The Victorian Age Inventions of the era Tramps and Millionaires Yellowstone Park Journals of the era White City/1893 Worlds Fair The Civil War President McKinley